Guzmania: description, breeding, care, maintenance, pests, photos, videos
Guzmania is a tropical epiphyte that naturally grows in the forests of America. Usually it settles on the bark of dead trees. In this regard, its roots do not fulfill their intended purpose and practically do not participate in nutrition; moisture enters the plant from air currents. Guzmania is a herbaceous plant with long leaves, bright bracts and small flowers. When breeding in room conditions, it barely reaches half a meter in height. This is due to the lack of the amount of humidity and lighting that it is provided in the wild. But this does not prevent her from growing well enough and fully developing.
The main decoration of guzmania are bracts, which have a bright red, orange, brown burgundy and orange color. In combination with bright green, mottled leaves, they give the plant a very spectacular look. The flowering of small white flowers ends with the formation of box-fruits containing a huge amount of very small seeds. In the future, they can be used to obtain new plant specimens.
Of course, the appearance of the flower leads to the thought of its capriciousness and the difficulty of growing at home our latitudes. But in reality, when all the requirements for the content are fulfilled, its breeding is a force even for a beginner grower.
Important! When the first flowering ends, guzmania dies. If you want to breed it in the future, you need to take care of reproduction in a timely manner.
General Information about the Guzmania Flower
Gusmanias are heat-loving plants and for their blooming a temperature of about 25 degrees Celsius is needed. These rainforest dwellers grow like epiphytes on trees and also take root in the soil. The plant has bright green or mottled leaves with a solid edge, forming a funnel-shaped rosette, which can reach up to 50 centimeters tall and have the same diameter. In the center of the rosette, blooming leaves appear before blooming, which have a bright color and stand out from the rest of the leaves.
Some species “throw out” inflorescences on long peduncles. Guzmania home care in which all the recommendations were followed blooms only at the age of 2-3 years. The duration of flowering can be more than 3 months, but after this, the mother plant dies. This is a feature of all representatives of the bromeliads, which bloom only once in their lifetime, after which they give lateral shoots and die off.
Features of caring for guzmania at home
Despite the unpretentiousness, there are a number of features that are characteristic of the entire family of bromeliads - monocarpic plants that bloom and bear fruit only once in a lifetime. You need to know how to care for such plants and how to create the most favorable environment for them.
Optimum conditions for the growth, flowering and reproduction of guzmania:
temperature condition. Under natural conditions, the flower grows in subequatorial and tropical climatic zones, which are characterized by a hot summer season and high humidity. Accordingly, a houseplant guzmania is a heat-loving flower.Recommended temperature in summer is 24-28º C, in winter 18-20º C;
lighting. A tropical guest is photophilous, but it is better to protect him from direct sunlight. It is recommended to place flower pots in the western or eastern room. In winter, in order to compensate for the lack of lighting, you can move to the south side, preferably not on the windowsill;
watering. The peculiarity of guzmania is that its root system is underdeveloped. Settled water, room temperature must be poured directly into the deciduous bowl. Non-absorbed water merges neatly - excess moisture threatens the roots with decay. In winter, they water it sparingly, in spring and summer - more abundantly in combination with periodic spraying of leaves;
priming. A prerequisite is high-quality drainage, expanded clay balls will cope with this task. The optimal soil composition is a mixture of peat, charcoal, soddy clay soil and sand (1: 1: 0.5: 0.5). In flower shops you can buy a ready-made composition specially selected for flowers of the bromeliad family;
transfer. How many times you need to transplant is a moot point. Some sources indicate - once every 2-3 years, practitioners recommend this procedure to be carried out once - after buying a flower. The optimum diameter of the pot is 10-15 cm;
top dressing. Guzmania at home does not need fertilizer, so you can do without fertilizing. If desired, in stores you can purchase a complex solution of minerals prepared for flowers of this species and apply once during the flowering period.
Fading, the plant itself takes care of reproduction and releases several children. To breed new flowers, it is enough to separate them from the mother and plant them separately. This process is quite easy, the only difficulty is the separation of the roots of the baby. Being very fragile, they easily break or remain on an adult specimen.
There are only 2 of them:
- Vegetative - lateral processes
Children can be separated only when the root system is sufficiently developed to grow independently. Usually, tall shoots that have caught up with the mother in height are already separated. In any case, the size of the baby should be at least 13-14 cm.
The shoots are cut with a sharp thin knife and very carefully separate the roots, trying not to tear them from the baby. It is recommended to treat the wound with crushed coal - wood or activated. Reproduction by children is the most affordable and easy way.
You can try to grow guzmania from seeds. They are taken from a plant that has flowered and formed a seed box. Material is immediately sown in soil until it has lost its germination capacity. To do this, use a light substrate of sand and peat, placed in a drawer.
Seeds can germinate only in daylight, so they are not sunk into the ground, located on the surface. The box is covered with glass and constantly ventilated to prevent acidification of the soil. Sprouts appear within 2.5-4 weeks.
An exotic guest blooms only once, but it is precisely this event that flower growers are waiting for. Actually, her flowers are small and nondescript, all the beauty is in brightly colored large bracts. They can be purple, scarlet, yellow, burgundy and orange colors. There are even varieties with a variegated color, but they are quite rare.
It also happens that guzmania wants to bloom for several years. It can be pushed to the beginning in a simple but original way. Rotting apples constantly emit acetylene, which contributes to the flowering of the tropicans. It is necessary to place guzmania and spoiled fruits under one bag of polyethylene and wait for flowering.
TIP! Do not forget to ventilate the building and monitor the appearance of mold.
When does it bloom?
Flowering begins in the spring-summer season and can last up to six months. Drying of the upper bracts means the end of the process. This usually happens in the fall during the dying period of all vegetation.
What to do after flowering?
Despite the fact that, having finished blooming, guzmania begins to die, caring for it does not stop. At this time, lateral shoots are actively developing on it, which will give new plants. Continue watering and spraying the flower until it is time to disconnect the children. The peduncle can be cut off so that it does not interfere with the children.
In nature, there are more than 120 species of guzmania, which differ from each other in size, habit, color and duration of flowering. Here are just a few of them:
- Guzmania reed (lingulata). A large plant with long bright green leaves up to 50 cm long. On the inside are brown stripes. The socket is very dense, the peduncle is short. The upper leaves of the peduncle are red or orange, and in the middle are small and white flowers.
- Guzmania Minor (lingulata minor). Selection hybrid based on guzmania reed. This compact variety is most often seen on the home windowsill. Also found under the name Guzmania Minor Rondo. It blooms from February to almost August;
- Guzmania Tempo. Another breeding hybrid, the "parent" is the same. Differs from Minor in larger dimensions.
- Guzmania Ostara. Derived artificially. Flowering continues for more than six months, the plant actively multiplies.
- Guzmania Nicaraguan (nicaraguensis). Compact plant that fits easily on the windowsill. The underside of the leaves is brown. Lemon bracts rise slightly above a shallow rosette of light green foliage. It blooms profusely, but not for long.
- Guzmania Conifer (Guzmania conifera). It has a bright conical knob on top of a tall peduncle. In the wild forest it can be seen from afar.
- Guzmania is blood red. It has a wide outlet, which is partially painted in red. That is, the inflorescence is not located on the peduncle, but right inside it.
- Guzmania is mosaic. It is cultivated not for the sake of flowers, but because of the colorful greenery. The plant pleases the eye with bright stripes on succulent foliage. Strokes are transverse and longitudinal. Bracts are bright pink.
- Guzmania one-banded (monostachia). One of the most decorative. It is called a single-spike because of the special structure of the inflorescence. Peduncle, green in the lower part, closer to the apex, gradually changes color to bright scarlet.
COMMON ERRORS WHEN GROWING
Most often, mistakes when growing and transplanting are made by newcomers who first bought guzmania or received it as a gift. Many unpleasant consequences can be avoided if you study the problems in advance, correct the wrong actions for watering or care.
Here are the main mistakes and ways to solve them:
- The plant does not bloom. So, he lacks watering, light and heat. You need to put the pot in a more lighted place, providing the desired humidity and temperature.
- Flower began to rot. The main reason for this is transfusion, stagnation of water in the outlet and the pan. Watering, especially in winter, should be reduced.
- Guzmania dies. If the room temperature for some time is kept at a mark of less than 12-13 degrees, this can lead to the death of the shoot.
- The flower quickly faded. If during spraying during flowering, water droplets fall on the inflorescences, this leads to faster flowering.
- For a long time the stem does not add to growth. The reason is in watering conditions. Water should be free from lime and chlorine, always at room temperature or slightly warm. It is advisable to defend it.
- Kids not accepted. So, their root system is not formed, the maternal process is removed early.
Advice! If the tips of the leaves dry out, more frequent spraying is necessary. You should remove the plant away from the battery, purchase a humidifier for too dry a room.
Subject to all these simple recommendations, guzmania will delight its owners with bright inflorescences and a beautiful appearance of a flower for a long time.
Guzmania home care: why does she die?
Three reasons can be distinguished because of which the beauty of guzmania perishes:
• Improper plant care.
• Insects are pests.
With improper care of the plant, for example, with excessive and abundant watering, the root system of guzmania can rot. In the beginning, this is manifested by the decay of the stem, and then its root system. If urgent measures are not taken to resuscitate a diseased plant, it will die very quickly.
Insects - The main enemies for guzmani among them are spider mites and mealy worms. They settle down and live on guzmania leaflets, damage them and destroy them. To remove these pests, it is necessary to regularly wipe the leaves of guzmania with a cloth soaked in soapy water or spray with special solutions.
Disease - in guzmania, it manifests itself in the form of a fungus that affects the leaves and stem of the plant with gray or black spots. To get rid of this disease, it is necessary to spray the affected areas of the flower with a fungicide solution.
With proper and unhurried care of the plant, in compliance with all the rules and with the knowledge of their own business, guzmania will exude health for a long time and delight its household with rapid and colorful flowering.
What is the life span of a plant?
Guzmania refers to annuals, but in reality, 2 and 4 years can live until flowering.
Is it possible to keep this plant at home?
Not just possible, but highly desirable! Beautiful bright guzmania not only pleases with its colors, but also effectively cleans the air in the room.
Is this flower poisonous?
Tropical beauty is one of the most harmless plants.
Why does guzmania not bloom?
An exotic guest does not bloom when she lacks heat, trace elements or light.
Why do leaves turn yellow and dry?
The tips of the leaves usually dry, and not the entire plate. So the plant signals that the air is deprived of the necessary moisture.
Winter flower care
Not much different from the rest of the care. If the house is cool, it is recommended to reduce the frequency and amount of water during watering so that the roots do not rot.