Boxer dog: the history of the breed and the nature of the dog
The German boxer, or just a boxer, is a representative of a large, stocky and smooth-haired breed. Bred in Germany, he was widely known for his excellent protective qualities. A boxer becomes for his master a wonderful companion and a true friend.
- Breed Name: Boxer
- Country of origin: Germany
- Breeding time: 1850 year
- Weight: males ~ 30 kg, females ~ 25 kg
- Height (height at the withers): males 57-63 cm, females 53-59 cm
- Life span: 11-12 years old
- Bright temperament and at the same time flexible character and strong nervous system - these features in German boxers are most fully expressed.
- A boxer is an excellent watchman, and all thanks to his courage and fearlessness.
- Dogs of this breed in the family circle are very sociable, love when the owners are attentive to them, show friendliness to all household members.
- An affectionate boxer is a real find for families with young children. He will play with pleasure with them, and then willingly lie down on the sofa (including with adults) to relax together.
- Boxers are often distrustful of outsiders: when guests appear in the house, they begin to bark loudly. Socialization of the animal from an early age will help in solving this problem.
- The correct education of a boxer is a guarantee that a faithful and devoted friend will grow out of a puppy.
Regarding the farthest ancestors of the boxer, experts put forward two versions. According to one of them, these are ancient mastiffs used in ancient times. The ancient Greeks, based on dog-like dogs, bred the Molossian breed, which was used primarily for military purposes. Molossians began to grow very quickly in other parts of Europe. Another assumption is that dog-shaped dogs existed originally in the European North.
Advocates of this point of view also believe that English mastiffs came from these early dogs. And the mastiffs themselves have already been used in breeding a number of breeds in central Europe. This is how bullenbasers appeared (about them below). But overall the question is very confusing. It is unlikely that they will understand it well in the foreseeable future.
ActuallyBoxer breed was bred in Germany.For the first time at the exhibition these dogs were shown in 1895, and another 10 years were required to develop and approve the official standard. But keep in mind that the breed also has a background that has not been documented. It is believed that the predecessors of the boxers were Brabant bullenbeysery. They were found very widely throughout almost all of Europe in the XVII-XVIII centuries.
The name "bullenbeyser" literally means "biting a bull." Such dogs were used by hunters to hunt animals. Therefore, the main focus was on increasing aggressiveness, but strictly within the owner-controlled framework. The goal is quite obvious - the dog was supposed to attack the victim and hold it, and at the first signal of the owner to release. But in the XIX century, driven hunting with bullying gradually goes out of fashion, and legislative bans on it soon appear.
Then, a specific combination of the qualities of Bullenbeiser found a new application - they began to use it as a guard and watchman of herds. However, livestock owners were primarily interested in the practical qualities of animals. The purity of the breed ceased to be appreciated, and the bullenbeiser and the British Bulldog began to cross actively.That is why the current boxers received a number of characteristic features.
The problem, however, was the uncontrolled, unsystematic nature of the cross. The appearance of the dogs turned out to be extremely different, and the development of a common standard seemed almost impossible. Individuals met with:
- unusually long muzzle;
- unreasonably oblong body;
- the appearance of a classic bulldog (the differences turned out to be extremely insignificant).
A huge contribution to the improvement and standardization of boxers was made by the Shtokman spouses. They initially came up with the ideal image of the breed and were able to realize their plan. The Shtokman had to overcome a number of difficulties along the way. They focused on reducing aggression and increasing animal contact. As a result, the very same boxers appeared that are familiar to modern breeders.
Returning to the very beginning of the formation of the breed, it must be pointed out that more or less close to the bullenbeysers familiar to us, they had a solid red or tiger color. They could not have white spots. The dogs inherited from the Molos ancestors rather short muzzles. This anatomical feature made it possible to breathe even while holding prey (victim) with teeth. Even when the ancestors of the boxers were used for bullying on the hunt, they began to stop their tails and ears.
These places were considered too vulnerable to collisions with prey, especially with predators. It was common practice to wait in ambush until the hounds led the beast to the right place. True boxers in the past were considered those who had a deep furrow on their nose. Because of her, it sometimes seemed that the nose was divided into two parts. This was the case at the time when they began to work purposefully on the breed.
With all the merits of the old breeders and the Shtokman couple, one cannot fail to mention the contribution of Robert Fisher. It was this reputable trainer who took the first important step - he helped to overcome the distrust of bullenbasers. Initially, proposals to add it to the list of breeding breeds caused a storm of indignation among breeders. But Fisher actually showed that boxers are much better at carrying out the bulk of the tasks than generally recognized then dogs.He not only obtained permission for them to participate in the exhibition, but also supported the creation of a national club.
A year later, in 1896, 50 boxers, differing in color and other features, were delivered to the first all-German exhibition. During rapid development, the standard had to be redone and refined several times. Initially, white boxers also entered it, but their inferiority was quickly discovered. Finally this variety of dogs was introduced into the studbook at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Soon the breed gained extraordinary popularity.
Boxer Dog: Breed Description
German boxer is a smooth-haired dog. All members of the breed are muscular and stocky. Other features can be found in the description below.
- Weight. The body weight of males is 27 - 35 kg. The weight of a bitch rarely exceeds 30 kg: on average, “girls” weigh 25 - 27 kg.
- Growth at the withers. The dimensions of an adult German boxer depend on gender. Male growth is 57 - 64 cm. The standard for females is from 53 to 63 cm.
- Color. The standard recognized tiger and red color. But within the framework of these colors, a variety of shades is allowed: from dark to light. Boxers have white marks. The presence of "spots" on the limbs, neck, chest, muzzle is not considered a vice. But at exhibitions, the ratio of background and marks is taken into account. If the white color takes 1/3 of the background and more - the dog is disqualified.
- Life span. On average, a boxer dog lives 10 to 13 years. Life expectancy largely depends on proper care, balanced nutrition, timely treatment of "pedigree" diseases.
- Character. Boxers have a balanced temperament. With proper upbringing at home, the dog behaves calmly, but on the alley the pet is ready to be active from morning to evening. They get along well with other animals in the same apartment, but on the street they can be cocky (especially males) in relation to their brothers. If you take up the correction of this nuance in childhood, the pet will be friendly to its kind. Boxers are attached to one owner, although they love all members of the family. Dogs of this breed try to always be close to the owner, they can not tolerate loneliness. A boxer will never offend a child and can even become a nanny for a baby.
- Intelligence. Boxers are distinguished by an inquiring mind and curiosity. They are easy to train, but the correct approach is important - only positive reinforcement. In the classroom, the pet should be interested, otherwise it will be stubborn and refuse to execute commands.
- Security and watchdog potential. The boxer has excellent security qualities. The dog is suspicious of strangers. With proper socialization, the pet will not bark at strangers on the street, but if necessary protect its owner.
Cowardice and aggression in character leads to culling of the dog: it is not allowed on exhibitions, it is not knitted. The presence of aggression in such a strong dog is dangerous. To get a balanced dog with strong nerves and other pedigree qualities of character, you can not buy a puppy "with hands".
Boxers - dogs are hardy and strong. Because of these qualities, they are often used in police and security. Despite their gross appearance and given qualities, they are very kind and loving family members. Animals get along well with children, very open. Their mood on the face is immediately visible - by the behavior it is clear whether the dog is sad or having fun.
Breeders note that the boxer dog is flexible and has a strong nervous system. They are good-natured and sociable - they easily make contact and love attention, they calmly behave at home, do not spoil things, and on the street they like to run and frolic. Long walks for boxers are always a joy. Dogs love to be in nature: here they study the territory and rummage in the ground. It treats strangers wary, dogs are smart and cunning. It is worth noting their agility, courage and great strength, because they belong to the category of fighting.
Training and education
Boxers are smart, well trained dogs. At the same time, they are stubborn and selectively perceive new information. They refuse to fulfill many commands, preferring to obey only those that they like.
Some owners believe that it is necessary to train a representative of this breed by the “carrot and stick” method, that is, punishing for disobedience and encouraging for the exact execution of commands. However, the “stick” in this technique will be superfluous, as boxers react poorly to punishment. Various rewards (praise, treats, rewards) make them more susceptible to training. Using a specific set of commands, in the process of training you are sure to achieve excellent results. With the correct and intelligible setting of tasks, the boxer remembers the learned commands for a long time.
The training of a boxer usually begins from the moment the puppy is in the house, and the full-fledged training - from three months. First of all, the dog is taught basic commands, such as “Sit!”, “Lie!”, “Near!”. When your pet learns them, you can start training for the “Come to Me!” Team. This team is considered the main one, the boxer must execute it in any situation and the first time.
The boxer is very fond of expanse, so the countryside suits him perfectly. But even your four-legged friend will feel good in the apartment if you regularly take him for walks to a large park where he can walk for a long time. The dog will be an excellent companion for the owner who loves morning or evening runs. He is ready to spend outdoors all day.
Dogs of this breed are often left to frolic in the courtyards of houses, before that, making sure of the strength of the fence. The latter is not out of place: there are many cases when German boxers jumped over the fence and fled. Their jaw is so powerful that, left alone at home, they can even bite the lock on the door.
As such, the German boxer does not exist. But dogs of this breed are differentiated by color. Dogs of two colors are allowed for exhibitions and breeding.
- Ginger. In red boxers, the color of the coat can range from light yellow to rich brick red. The black “mask” should not go beyond the muzzle.
- Brindle. He is a “striped” color. It has a lot of variations. In light tiger dogs, the general background of the coat is red, and the dark stripes on it are barely noticeable. The dark-tiger dogs have a dark color, sometimes it seems that it is black, but with red “speckles”. Dark "coloring" is provided by strips. They reach for the ribs. There should be a contrast between the stripes and the primary color. The standard assumes medium in width: too narrow, as well as too wide are considered a defect.
There are completely white boxers. The appearance of such a puppy is considered rare, but in fact albinos are often born - 25% of the total. White boxers are not recognized by the standard, breeders do not grow them. Albinos are prone to deafness: 18% of white puppies do not hear.
There are requirements for the exterior of boxers. According to the breed standard, dogs should have a muscular body, slender legs and a strong skeleton. The table of exterior requirements will help to understand the features of the appearance of boxers.
Table - Exterior of boxers by standard
|Part of the body||Features|
|Head||- Cubic shape;|
- on top a slight bulge;
- proportional to the body
- flattened upturned nose;
- slightly protruding lower jaw;
- black nose tip
|Body||- Musculature is expressed;|
- strong skeleton;
- square case;
- straight short back;
- wide inclined lower back;
- deep chest
|Forelimbs||- are parallel to each other;|
- the forearms are massive;
- elbows pressed to the body
|Hind limbs||- Widely delivered;|
- muscular thighs
|Tail||Low set by nature|
|The ears||- Located in the highest part of the skull;|
- hang forward in a calm state;
- stick up when excited
- dark color
The German boxer standard is regularly updated. Until 2002, a standard was in force according to which docking of tails and ears was mandatory. Now this procedure in many countries is at the discretion of the owner, but in Europe, stopping boxers is prohibited.
Pros and cons
The characteristic of a boxer dog seems ideal to many: a good, faithful, intelligent friend, and even a guard. But do not rush to run after the puppy after reading the description: boxers are not suitable for everyone. Pets of this breed are definitely not worth getting home-stayers and people who prefer to walk lying on the couch. A boxer is an active dog, it is necessary to give an opportunity for the release of its energy, otherwise there will be problems with behavior at home. With a dog you need to regularly engage, load its brain. But it’s easy to take care of boxers. A table of merits and demerits of the breed will help to understand whether you should have such a pet.
Table - Advantages and disadvantages of the German boxer breed
|- Can be kept in an apartment;|
- balanced character;
- learning ability;
- quick wit;
- love for children;
- security instinct;
- simplicity of leaving
|- Requires long walks and vigorous classes;|
- without loads, they become hyperactive;
- infantile (up to three years old puppy behavior may occur);
- require serious education;
- they can "sort out" relationships with dogs on the street;
- there are pedigree diseases;
- sensitive to temperature extremes;
- a lot of saliva
The owners of the boxers claim that these dogs have a sense of humor.At least, it seems so, looking at what games these entertainers come up with and with what “grimaces” they execute teams.
Maintenance and care
German boxer is not suitable for aviary. Absolutely does not tolerate cold, so he must live indoors, in heat. In a one-room, small-sized apartment, the boxer is not comfortable, he needs enough space, since he does not like to sit still.
The boxer needs daily walks. The more often the owner takes the pet out, the better. You need to walk him at least twice a day, while one of the walks must be active so that the dog runs around to freedom, plays. In a word, spent the accumulated energy.
A high level of physical activity is necessary for representatives of this breed.
Short coat cannot protect the boxer from the cold. Therefore, in the autumn-winter period it must be worn in special clothing for dogs. It is also recommended to reduce walking time if there is severe frost, snow or rain on the street.
From the first day we determine the place in the house of the pet. We set there a stove bench, bowls for water and food. This place, although heat-loving, should not be near heating appliances.
Caring for a German boxer is not difficult. The main thing is to teach him from the puppy's age to the following procedures and carry out them regularly:
- We comb the boxer once or twice a week. Short hair does not tangles, but combing is required to remove dead hair and brush the skin.
- Completely, using the boxer's detergents, we bathe a couple of times a year. If the dog smeared a certain part of the body, you can simply wipe it with a damp cloth or rinse with warm water. After each walk, wash my paws.
- To make the coat look well-groomed and shiny, prepare a napkin made of rubberized material and a leather shred. First, wipe the dog with a napkin, then with a leather rag dipped in water.
- Long claws not only prevent the dog from moving freely, but can also cause pain. They must be regularly sheared using the cutters intended for this procedure. This must be done carefully so as not to damage the blood vessels.
- The German boxer has saggy eyelids, and he is also prone to conjunctivitis. Therefore, we pay special attention to the eyes of such a pet. Every day you need to inspect them, remove from the corners of pollution and excretion. To do this, there should be a soft patch on the catch. Even with the slightest redness, it is worth treating the eyelids with a special ointment, which the veterinarian will prescribe.
- We clean our ears once a week, removing dirt and ear discharge. Cotton buds are not recommended for this, it is better to use a soft handkerchief.
- The owner of the boxer should be prepared for increased salivation of the pet. Especially when he sees food. You should always have a towel or napkin with you to wipe the dog's face.
German boxer is prone to obesity. If you do not follow the portions and calories, he will overeat and quickly gain extra pounds.
In order not to bring to this, feed at the same time, in certain portions 2 times a day. We feed puppies and young dogs 3-6 times a day. Pregnant bitches also need increased nutrition.
For boxers, natural feeding is preferred. If you opted for dry feed, get it from trusted sellers. This product must be premium.
Boxer is a hassle-free dog. To make the pet look perfect, it is enough to regularly carry out simple hygiene procedures. You need to teach a puppy to manipulate a puppy from an early age, then in adulthood there will be no problems.
- Bathing. Bathing a boxer is often not recommended. It is enough to arrange a bathing day once a year. It is better to use hypoallergenic shampoos, because boxers have sensitive skin. After bathing, the pet must be wiped dry so that it does not catch a cold. If the dog is dirty “unscheduled”, simply wipe the dirty area with a damp towel. You can use dry shampoo.
- Combing. Once a week, the boxer needs to be combed with a special soft brush or rubber glove-mittens. Hard brushes can damage a dog’s delicate skin. It is necessary to scratch by the growth of hairs. After the procedure, breeders recommend wiping the wool with a piece of suede: this way it will shine.
- Washing paws. Paws are washed daily after a walk. Remove dirt between your fingers, otherwise irritation may occur.
- Claw cutting. Claws are trimmed with a special clipper as needed. The frequency of the procedure depends on the place of walking: in urban dogs, the claws grind on the asphalt. Check claw length once a month. Long claws entail bending of the fingers.
- Ear cleaning. Inspect your pet's ears weekly. Remove dirt with a finger wrap. Once a month, special veterinary solutions can be used for hygiene: this is the prevention of ear infections. Redness and unpleasant odor from the ears - an occasion to consult a veterinarian.
- Oral hygiene. Three times a month you need to brush your dog’s teeth. To do this, use a special toothbrush and paste. If tartar has appeared, you need to contact a specialist for removal. Examine your gums regularly: red is a sign of inflammation.
- Eye care. The procedure is performed daily to avoid conjunctivitis. It is necessary to moisten a cotton pad in boiled water and remove all the "excess".
Every day, after walking, wipe the folds on the pet's face with a damp cloth. Mud and saliva can accumulate here. This simple manipulation will help to avoid irritation and inflammation.
Which is better - "natural", industrial feed or a mixed type of food? Dog lovers can argue about this for hours. Everyone has their own truth. What to feed the German boxer - the owner decides in terms of their own convenience and cost. Remember the general rules of feeding.
- A complete diet. You can’t save on dog food, because it will be reflected in health. If the food is premium only. If "naturalka" - then a balanced diet, a third of which is meat, the rest - cereals, sour milk, vegetables. When feeding "naturalka" be sure to give your pet vitamins. They should pick up a veterinarian.
- Allergy test. Boxers are prone to severe allergies. This means that new products need to be introduced into the dog’s diet gradually. The rule also applies to industrial feed: change the manufacturer - watch the reaction.
- Serving size control. The standard requires an athletic physique from representatives of the breed. But boxers love to eat, and if you do not control the portion size, then there will not be a trace of a sports figure. On packs of food indicated grammar. When feeding natural food, the serving size should be discussed with the veterinarian or breeder: a lot depends on the activity of the dog and its age.
- Harm never. Boxers like to beg. And for this they use their charisma. Looking at a cute face with a wrinkle on his forehead, it is difficult to restrain himself and not treat the pet with food from the table. This is strictly prohibited. Salty and seasoned foods, smoked meats, and sweets, even in small quantities, can lead to serious health problems. Want to treat your pet with something? Vegetables and fruits are also a treat. Also useful.
- Water is always. The dog should always have access to water. It needs to be changed regularly. Pets that eat food drink plenty of fluids, so be sure to keep the bowl full.
The number of feeds depends on the age of the dog. Up to six months, the pet needs to be given food four times a day. After six months, one feeding is removed. One-year-old dogs are fed twice - morning and evening.
The average life expectancy of a German boxer is only 10 years. This is sad, but with proper maintenance, care and proper feeding, this pet can live up to 14-15 years.
The owner must carefully monitor that the heat-loving boxer does not catch a cold. To do this, after walking in snowy, foggy or rainy weather, thoroughly wipe the animal’s hair with a towel.
Infectious diseases can be avoided thanks to routine vaccination. It is also important to visit a veterinary clinic with a dog 1-2 times a year for preventive examinations, tests and x-rays. Be sure to treat the dog with drugs from external parasites and do deworming.
You can prevent many health problems if you know which diseases the breed is predisposed to:
- Eye diseases - because of the drooping eyelids, the boxer often has entropion, which can be eliminated only by surgical intervention. In addition, you need to be prepared for inflammation, trauma and conjunctivitis.
- Heart diseases - arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, aortic stenosis.
- Rheumatism - Rheumatism leads to hypothermia, prolonged exposure to snow, in the rain.
- Hypothyroidism - lack of thyroid hormones.
- Allergy - drinking is most often observed.
- Gastrointestinal diseases - bloating, inversion of the intestines.
- Obesity - improperly prepared diet, inactivity.
- Deafness - in most cases, congenital.
How to choose a puppy
In addition to meeting the breed standard, an important criterion for choosing a future pet should be the conformity of its character to yours. Also, you should initially decide for what purpose you choose a German boxer. If you do not set the goal of dog participation in various exhibitions and just want to breed, the outgoing companion dog will do just fine. The puppy should show its playfulness, friendliness and desire to communicate with you.
Boxer is great for active, cheerful people, because it is a sports dog. Even if you choose a “non-elite” puppy, communication with him and training will bring a lot of pleasure. Many kilometers of jogging is not a problem for him; he will make you good company on trips and excursions to hard-to-reach spots.
Many would like to become boxer breeders to sell puppies in the future. For this purpose, do not skimp on a good bitch, which will be the starting point for breeding. She must meet the following criteria: be a descendant of a well-known family with excellent titles. In order not to make a mistake in choosing, it is better to purchase a pedigree puppy in famous nurseries, guaranteeing that you will not buy a "fake". You should also pay attention to the qualities of the puppy's parents: they must have excellent characteristics inherent in this breed, be mentally balanced.
Be sure to ask about the health status of the future pet, whether he passed the test for deforming spondylosis, hip dysplasia, deviations in behavior and eye diseases. Any of these ailments carries real danger to boxers and can even cause the death of a dog. It would be useful to request a document from the breeder in which the results of the litter survey are recorded in order to find out how many puppies the commission rejected. If the number of those turns out to be high, it is better not to take the puppy, as there is a risk of transmitting defects to offspring.
How much is a boxer
Boxers are relatively inexpensive, you can purchase them in almost any region of our country. You don’t have to look for puppies of the “show” and “brid” classes too long. A future purchase should be taken responsibly, thoroughly examine the breed standard, so that with an independent choice you will not be deceived. Those who do not have enough experience and knowledge are advised to seek the advice of specialists.
The cost of a German boxer is influenced by factors such as exterior, age and origin. Private breeders can buy a puppy for 3,000 rubles. Only he will be without a pedigree: only a veterinary passport can be obtained from documents.
Puppies from thoroughbred parents who have, in addition to a veterinary passport, a stamp and a puppy card, are more expensive - from 8,000 rubles. Be sure to pay attention to the content of these documents. The veterinary passport must contain notes on vaccinations and the prevention of parasites. Do not forget that all the necessary vaccinations for a puppy are given between the ages of 2 and 3 months.
A puppy card is like a metric for a child, on its basis you will receive a pedigree for your pet in the future. Each such card contains the following data: date of birth, information about parents, from which breeder is purchased, coat color, brand number and nickname. The mark is placed at the time of sale in the ear or in the groin area. Puppy card is a very serious document. Without the act of inspection of the puppies by the tribal commission, which includes authorized dog handlers, it cannot be executed.
Inexperienced owners are encouraged to be in close contact with the breeders, consult with him. Specialists who are rooting for their job will never refuse advice and will try to help solve possible problems with the puppy at the stage of their occurrence. This will help the boxer to develop correctly, learn to get along with the owners and learn about the world. And how your pet grows up is up to you.
- Boxer dogs were named so because of their behavior during the fight. These animals skillfully strike the opponent with paws, like boxers in the ring.
- Boxers have a universal blood group. Representatives of the breed are appreciated by veterinarians as donors. Timely transfusion saved the odd dog. Some boxers who donate blood regularly have been given the title of Honorary Donor.
- Representatives of this breed were the favorites of such celebrities as Robin Williams, Sylvester Stallone, Pablo Picasso.