Perch: description, nutrition, appearance, size, photo, video, spawning, behavior, recipes.
This well-known fish along with roach belongs to the most numerous inhabitants of our fresh waters: everywhere - in rivers and small rivers, lakes, even stagnant ponds with fairly fresh water - perch is found in abundance (Fig. 1). Some lakes are even populated by this fish alone. Lakes with clear water make up the favorite abode of perch, and it breeds best in them.
Appearance and size
In its warehouse and body color, perch is easily different from all our other fish. Its body is quite wide, especially among large perches, and somewhat hunchbacked; the back is dark green, the sides are greenish-yellow, the belly is yellowish; 5–9 transverse dark stripes stretch across the whole body, which make it very colorful; in some cases, these strips are replaced by dark, irregular spots. In addition, the caudal fin, especially in its lower part, the anal and ventral fins are bright red; pectoral fins are yellow, the first dorsal fin is bluish, with a large black spot at the end, and the second is greenish-yellow. The eyes are orange.
However, the color of the perch depends, like most fish, on the quality of the water, and even more on the color of the ground ... Therefore, perches in clear water with a light sandy or clay bottom are very light, sometimes even without a black eye on the dorsal feather and with barely visible transverse stripes. On the contrary, in forest lakes with a black muddy bottom, they have darker stripes, a darker back and a bright yellow belly. In some places (as, for example, in Lake Senezh, Moscow province), perches even have golden gill covers. In addition, it should be noted that young perches up to the age of two are more monotonous than those who have reached puberty and that the largest are comparatively darker. There is one sharp spike on the gill covers, which prick very painfully and can even cause swelling and mild inflammation. The mouth is very large and armed with numerous, but very small teeth.
The ordinary perch value does not exceed 0.8–1.2 kg. In very rare cases, it reaches 2–2.8 kg in our country, and only in large lakes, such as Onega, there are 3.2 kg and in Chudsky even 4.3 kg perch. But in the rivers and lakes of Western Siberia, such giants do not already constitute a very big wonder, and in the lakes of the Yekaterinburg district, huge perches of 4-5 kg are currently found. However, large perches are not so large at all, as one would expect, which depends on the fact that they grow more in thickness and height than in length. They almost never happen to be more than 54 cm, but their thickness in the back sometimes extends to 16 cm, and the height to 26 cm.
Depending on the size, as well as the season, the perch is held in more or less deep places of a river or lake. In the summer, small and medium-sized habitats choose backwaters, chickens overgrown with aquatic plants (burdocks, peas - Potamogeton, reeds and reeds), which also serve as an ambush for catching small fish, and generally stay at great depths, but in the fall they go to more open places . Large perches constantly live at depths - in whirlpools, pits - and come out from there only in the mornings and in the evening.
In the warm season, perches are usually seen in small flocks, several dozens, rarely hundreds, and then small, one-year-old, but in the spring, before spawning, and especially at the end of autumn, they gather in huge schools, which consist of fish of the same age and are more numerous than they are smaller, so the largest flocks are in the fall and consist of yearlings and year and a half perch. Judging by the fact that they are caught in large numbers almost all winter by seines and fishing rods, we must assume that these flocks are divided into smaller ones only in the early spring. In general, perch is a settled fish, never makes long wanderings, even before spawning, and often, as, for example, in ponds and lakes, lives all year round in the same place.
Behavior and lifestyle
Large perch is a very agile, strong and predatory fish. One must be surprised at the greed and perseverance with which he is chasing some fish on top, which he repulsed from the village. The unfortunate fish, like a crazy one, jumps out of the water, and the perch whirls behind it, revealing its huge mouth with a loud champing until it grabs it. The chomping of a large perch is so loud that in calm weather you can hear it a hundred paces away. Small perches are not inferior to large ones in agility and agility of movements. Who has not seen how schools of perch hunt for fry, that is, the young of other fish; it even happens that they, carried away by the pursuit, jump out after their prey aground, even on coastal sand.
Perch swim very quickly, but in jerks, often suddenly stopping and then again rushing forward. Perch does not give descent to any living creature, from small water insects to rather large fish, so long as it is within its power and can fit in its wide mouth. He himself is relatively rarely eaten by other predatory fish that do not like his sharp spinal needles.
Spawning of perch depends on the time of the final opening of the waters: in ponds and lakes it never “rubs” before the ice disappeared completely and only in the lower reaches of large rivers flowing south does spawning end before the start of water flow and the passage of ice from the upper reaches. In Central Russia, river bass usually spawns when water decreases, especially in small rivers. In semi-flowing ponds, that is, having flow only in spring and after heavy rains, spawning begins several days later than in rivers, and in slow-flowing lakes it slows down even more.
Thus, in the same locality, the difference in spawning time can be more than a week, sometimes ten days. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that each breed of fish does not spawn before the water reaches a certain temperature, at which it becomes possible to develop eggs of one or another breed. Perch appears to spawn when water reaches +7 or + 8 ° heat. In general, near Moscow, the beginning of spawning of perch in small rivers and rivers coincides with the beginning of blooming of birch, and the latest spawning occurs in early May, when the leaf is already fully turned around. Earlier, many other fish spawn perch - dace, pike, ide and sheresper, only in the lower Volga perch, according to Yakovlev, spawns before all fish - in March, immediately after opening the mouth of the ice.
Flocks of perches leave their winter camps - pits - as soon as small fringes form, that is, at the first profit of the water, they break up into smaller villages and approach the shores. Often from large rivers or lakes, these villages enter the tributaries that have been cleared of ice, walk for some time along the spills of these rivers, chasing small fish here and eating eggs, spruce and pike ides, never, however, rising far upstream. Such flocks usually spawn eggs here and return to the river when it enters the banks. Most of the perches in large rivers spawn, however, in the old women and in the lakes where their floods drive; with a rapid decline in waters, they sometimes remain here until next spring or a large flood. In rivers, spring villages of perches are always much smaller than in large flowing ponds or lakes, especially those where perch is almost the main breed of fish.
Most spawning in rivers is almost always carried out in places that have no current or only weak, certainly where the perches can find objects that they could rub against and thereby facilitate the rapid flow of caviar and milk. These items are different, depending on the nature of the area. In ponds and lakes, perches rub in the old, broken-off reeds and reeds, in shallow places, and for lack of named plants - on the remaining stems and roots of burdock (water lilies); in rivers, caviar is swept out in backwaters or bays also on the stems of water plants or on driftwood, various rubbish, on the roots of trees washed by water, sometimes on the branches of flooded shrubs; in large rivers, perch rubs for the most part in elders and lakes, also in grasses.
Only in the northern and northwestern lakes (part of the rivers) with a rocky bed, perch spawns on stones, and sometimes on sand. It has been noticed that large perches always rub in deeper places than small ones, and they are most likely to throw eggs on old sunken stems of water plants. During spawning, for the same reasons, perches go well into the muzzles and tops, woven from willow twigs, and they are easy to attract to any place by laying several pines or fir-trees there.
Like most fish, perches shortly before spawning get a brighter color. The proximity of the onset of this time can always be determined in a few days or weeks by the redder fins and the striking stripes on the back. Perches with matured sex products are therefore very different from last year’s and third year’s perch, which are always paler and almost monochromatic. In most cases, these perches in large numbers follow schools of spawning fish and diligently eat up eggs spawned by them.
Spawning itself is relatively quieter than, for example, in roach, dace tree, bream and some other cyprinids, which spawn large herds of eggs. Spawning of large perches is even less noticeable, partly because their schools are insignificant, partly because they rub at a deeper depth than shallow ones, between deep-seated reeds or (in some lakes) between stones. But small perch, at least in the so-called perch lakes, spawning with large runes (which are joined by still large flocks of juvenile perches) and in shallow water, often jumps out of the water, and sometimes even gathers in lake bays in such numbers that the upper ranks protruding from the bottom outward, produce a strong splash, audible and visible from afar. The best indicator of spawning grounds and generally large concentrations of fish is, as almost always, the presence of gulls, loons and other water birds.
Perch spawns exclusively early in the morning, sometimes shortly before sunset; in the midday heat and in the evening the game weakens significantly, the flock thins for a while, and at night the worried fish calms down completely. Each rune for the most part ends spawning in two, three stages, that is, in the morning and evening, or at two in the morning and evening, but the play of perch of all ages lasts a very considerable time - about a week.
Having spawned eggs, flocks of starving perches first roam near the shore at a shallow depth and feed mainly on other fish roe, especially roach roe, which spawns shortly after perch, and earthworms brought into the river or pond from arable land and vegetable gardens. Then, in central Russia, in about the second third of May, perch breaks up into small flocks, and each village chooses a well-known area for itself, which, with rare exceptions, does not leave all summer, that is, leads an almost sedentary lifestyle. The number of summer flocks also depends on the age of the fish and on the terrain; thus, the largest perches are found at this time even alone, rarely more than a dozen together; small perches go in dozens, and sometimes, as in some lakes and in the lower Volga ilmeni, in hundreds. The summer location of the perch also depends a lot on the terrain and is quite diverse, but in general it can be said that the perch in the summer, with rare exceptions, is kept at medium depth, in a small current and only where it can find some kind of protection or, rather, an ambush.
Food or what perch eats
The main food of perch is, of course, small fish - juveniles or the smallest breeds; fish larger (7-10 cm) are taken by prey only to the largest perches, and this is relatively rare, since they are too agile for these relatively slow-moving predators. But the perch does not allow anything alive to descend, and in some places at times it exclusively feeds on worms in the spring, molting crustaceans or young crustaceans in the summer; in late autumn, at the beginning and at the end of winter, the main food for perches in many lakes in the north, part of central Russia and Siberia, are small breeds of crustaceans, amphipods or mormysh (Gammarus). Actually, this fish eats insects only with a lack of other food. Of small fish, the perch always pursues the most common and easiest breed to reach.
Those fish that constantly live in more often aquatic plants, where their pursuit is almost impossible, are made by its prey only at a very young age, and perch prefers to hunt for small things of those breeds that like to stay in cleaner places, but close to thickets of water plants, serving him in ambush. Almost everywhere in the rivers, perch mainly feeds last year's roach and fry of this most common fish, and only in the south of Russia, it seems, prefers to it (near the end of summer and autumn) sazhan fry.
In the ponds and lakes of central Russia, small and medium perch undoubtedly prefers topper roe (Leucaspius delineatus) to small roach, which is sometimes very numerous here and represents easier prey, since it always stays in the upper layers of water in even more open places than year-old, already quite brisk roach. In the more northerly lakes, the top place replaces the smelt; large perches living at great depths feed on young whitefish and one-year-old shoals. Finally, in small rivers, generally with a lack of small roach, the perch preys mainly on small gudgeons, char, and part (in central and northern Russia) minnows.
In total, loaches are easier for him, which he diligently searches for in stones, in the same place where he finds young crustaceans. It goes without saying that he does not spare his own offspring everywhere, and the big perch will also never miss the chance to grab a 9-12-centimeter fellow.
The beneficial properties of perch are determined by the chemical composition of the meat. And, as you know, it contains a lot of useful components.
First of all, the fillet of this freshwater fish is an excellent source of essential fatty acids (more than 1.5 g per 100 g of product) necessary for the operation of most body systems. But one of the key effects on humans is improving brain functioning. In addition, perch is rich in B vitamins, in particular B12, which are necessary for the synthesis of melanin and maintaining the structure of DNA.
Meat Perca - a real mineral and vitamin "cocktail". Together, these beneficial substances improve tissue oxygen supply, activate fat metabolism, and serve as a “building material” for connective tissue and bones. Dishes from perch are useful for people with disorders of the thyroid gland, restore the integrity of the mucous membranes, and also regulate glucose levels.
Oddly enough, but there are people who can harm perch meat. First of all, this applies to people with gout, urolithiasis, inflammation of the urinary tract, kidney dysfunction. Also rarely, but nevertheless, individual intolerance to this type of fish is found.
Recipes of river bass
Excellent taste is what characterizes perch meat. In addition, perch has a relatively small number of bones. At the same time, the amount of meat in the perch is not so much, so when frying, you should use more oil or it is better to cook soup based on perch. Dishes from perch are considered dietary.For example, the calorie content of perch is 82 kcal, and with regard to nutritional value, it is determined by 18.5 g of protein, 0.9 g of fat and 0 g of carbohydrates. Also, perch is different in that when it is frozen, the taste is not lost for three months. The benefits of perch dishes are invaluable both for the digestive system and for the nervous system. The meat of perch contains a lot of phosphorus, which affects the process of chemical reactions in the human body.
Recipe for perch cooked in the oven
To prepare this dish, you should take four perches, three tomatoes, two onions, three cloves of garlic, one lemon, about a hundred grams of white wine, about a hundred grams of flour, seven grains of coriander, two teaspoons of ginger, a little black pepper (peas), oil olive, greens and salt. Stages of cooking: The first stage involves the proper cutting and cleaning of fish. In particular, the tail and fins must be removed with scissors. The head is removed using an ordinary kitchen knife. Scales are scraped towards the head. Finally, the abdomen should be cut and guts, milk or caviar removed.
Next, you need to take a mortar and grind the following ingredients in it: coriander, salt, pepper and ginger. A mixture of spices prepared in this way is needed in order to lubricate her carcasses of perch both outside and inside. After that, the fish is placed in a bowl where you need to add wine and lemon juice. The bowl is covered with cling film and sent to the refrigerator for two hours. The next cooking step, which involves this recipe for perch in the oven, is based on the preparation of the necessary ingredients. Onions are cut into rings and fried in a pan using olive oil. Tomatoes go through boiling water treatment to make it easier to remove the peel. Then cut into thin slices. As for the greens (dill, parsley), it must be finely chopped. We raise the temperature in the oven to 240 degrees.
Put the pickled fish on a towel (paper). Then roll the carcasses in flour and fry in a pan until golden brown. The fire is reduced, and the fish is extinguished for about five minutes. Pour olive oil into the baking dish and place the tomatoes that were prepared in advance there. In this case, the layer of tomatoes should cover the entire bottom of the form fairly evenly. In addition, garlic, half the volume of prepared herbs and fried onions are added. Finally, put the fish on top and sprinkle it with the remaining tomatoes and herbs. Half a glass of marinade is also added, and the perch goes into the oven for a little over half an hour. On this we can assume that the perch baked in the oven is ready. By the way, it should be borne in mind that during baking, fish should be watered with the juice that forms directly in the form.
Recipe for perch
As you know, cleaning perch is a rather difficult task. Based on this, it is better to clean the perch, which was previously frozen. Further preparation of carcasses is standard and involves the removal of the tail, fins and head. As the ingredients necessary for the preparation of this dish, you should take river perch, lard, semolina, onions and spices. Stages of cooking: If the fish is small, then it can be passed through the meat grinder directly as a whole, that is, without removing bones. At the same time, mince should still be passed through a meat grinder about three times. To add juiciness to the meatballs, it is necessary to add lard and onions to the minced meat. In turn, semolina will add viscosity to the stuffing, which also needs to be introduced. After the stuffing is kneaded, he needs to give time to insist. Then, cutlets are formed from minced meat, which must be fried on both sides.
River bass fish soup recipe
Fish soup is the most common fish dish both at home and directly at the fishing site. The simplest recipe for fish soup with perch includes only fish, potatoes, onions, peppers and salt. At the same time, some advise cutting off the head at the perch, but this is not the right action, since perch refers to dietary fish, so the head will give the desired fat and taste. Stages of cooking: The potato is peeled and diced, and then placed in boiling water. When the water boils again, you should add fish to it and cook for about fifteen minutes over low heat. The main thing is to ensure that the fish does not boil. After the cooking process is completed, bay leaf and pepper are added. Then the ear should be infused for about ten minutes. Finally, giving the ear to the table, you can previously pour a glass of vodka into the pan.
Recipe for perch cooked in a slow cooker
River bass cooked in a slow cooker is one of the best fish dishes. In order to cook it: - clean medium-sized perches: the process is quite difficult, but there are ways to easily clean the perch - before the procedure, you need to stretch it, for example, stretch your tail with a knife and pull your head to an audible crunch; - 2 fillets are prepared from peeled fish; - harvested garlic, half a lemon, 3 eggs (quail), herbs, salt and spices (to taste). Prepare perch in a slow cooker in this order: - finely chop greens, garlic; - both pieces of fillet sprinkled with seasoning, salt on 2 sides; - one fillet is placed in the capacity of the multicooker, greens, garlic, lemon (slices) are placed on top; - they cover everything with another fillet and pour eggs on top. The slow cooker is switched on to the "Baking" mode. Baked perch will be ready in 15 minutes.